Saturday, 26 March 2011
Ampere: The unit of measurement of electrical current produced in a circuit by 1 volt acting through a resistance of 1 ohm.
Ancillary Services: Necessary services that must be provided in the generation and delivery of electricity.
Average Revenue per Kilowatthour: The average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold by sector (residential, commercial, industrial, or other) and geographic area (State, Census division, and national), is calculated by dividing the total monthly revenue by the corresponding total monthly sales for each sector and geographic area.
Combined Cycle: An electric generating technology in which electricity is produced from otherwise lost waste heat exiting from one or more gas (combustion) turbines. The exiting heat is routed to a conventional boiler or to a heat recovery steam generator for utilization by a steam turbine in the production of electricity. This process increases the efficiency of the electric generating unit.
Combined Pumped-Storage Plant: A pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant that uses both pumped water and natural streamflow to produce electricity.
Current (Electric): A flow of electrons in an electrical conductor. The strength or rate of movement of the electricity is measured in amperes.
Distribution: The delivery of electricity to retail customers (including homes, businesses, etc.).
Distribution System: The portion of an electric system that is dedicated to delivering electric energy to an end user.
Electric Plant (Physical): A facility containing prime movers, electric generators, and auxiliary equipment for converting mechanical, chemical, and/or fission energy into electric energy.
Firm Power: Power or power-producing capacity intended to be available at all times during the period covered by a guaranteed commitment to deliver, even under adverse conditions.
Generation (Electricity): The process of producing electric energy by transforming other forms of energy; also, the amount of electric energy produced, expressed in watthours (Wh).
Generator: A machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Gigawatt (GW): One billion watts.
Gigawatthour (GWh): One billion watthours.
Grid: The layout of an electrical distribution system.
Kilowatthour (kWh): One thousand watthours.
oad (Electric): The amount of electric power delivered or required at any specific point or points on a system. The requirement originates at the energy-consuming equipment of the consumers.
Maximum Demand: The greatest of all demands of the load that has occurred within a specified period of time.
Mcf: One thousand cubic feet.
Megawatt (MW): One million watts.
Megawatthour (MWh): One million watthours.
MMcf: One million cubic feet.
Ohm: The unit of measurement of electrical resistance. The resistance of a circuit in which a potential difference of 1 volt produces a current of 1 ampere.
Outage: The period during which a generating unit, transmission line, or other facility is out of service.
Planned Generator: A proposal by a company to install electric generating equipment at an existing or planned facility or site. The proposal is based on the owner having obtained (1) all environmental and regulatory approvals, (2) a signed contract for the electric energy, or (3) financial closure for the facility.
Plant: A facility at which are located prime movers, electric generators, and auxiliary equipment for converting mechanical, chemical, and/or nuclear energy into electric energy. A plant may contain more than one type of prime mover. Electric utility plants exclude facilities that satisfy the definition of a qualifying facility under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978.
Plant Use: The electric energy used in the operation of a plant. Included in this definition is the energy required for pumping at pumped-storage plants.
Power: The rate at which energy is transferred. Electrical energy is usually measured in watts. Also used for a measurement of capacity.
Substation: Facility equipment that switches, changes, or regulates electric voltage.
Switching Station: Facility equipment used to tie together two or more electric circuits through switches. The switches are selectively arranged to permit a circuit to be disconnected, or to change the electric connection between the circuits.
System (Electric): Physically connected generation, transmission, and distribution facilities operated as an integrated unit under one central management, or operating supervision.
Transformer: An electrical device for changing the voltage of alternating current.
Transmission: The movement or transfer of electric energy over an interconnected group of lines and associated equipment between points of supply and points at which it is transformed for delivery to consumers, or is delivered to other electric systems. Transmission is considered to end when the energy is transformed for distribution to the consumer.
Transmission System (Electric): An interconnected group of electric transmission lines and associated equipment for moving or transferring electric energy in bulk between points of supply and points at which it is transformed for delivery over the distribution system lines to consumers, or is delivered to other electric systems.
Unbundling: The separating of the total process of electric power service from generation to metering into its component parts for the purpose of separate pricing or service offerings.
Voltage Reduction: Any intentional reduction of system voltage by 3 percent or greater for reasons of maintaining the continuity of service of the bulk electric power supply system.
Volumetric Wires Charge: A type of charge for using the transmission and/or distribution system that is based on the volume of electricity that is transmitted.
Watt: The electrical unit of power. The rate of energy transfer equivalent to 1 ampere flowing under a pressure of 1 volt at unity power factor.
Watthour (Wh): An electrical energy unit of measure equal to 1 watt of power supplied to, or taken from, an electric circuit steadily for 1 hour.
Wires Charge: A broad term which refers to charges levied on power suppliers or their customers for the use of the transmission or distribution wires.
Atoms are made of even smaller particles
r The center called the nucleus.
r It is made of proton and neutrons.
r Electrons move around the nucleus in clouds, or shells, far from the nucleus.
r When atom is balance, it has the number of protons and electrons.
r It can have a different number of neutrons.
Protons and electrons attract each other
Ä Electrons stay in their shells because a special force holds them there.
Ä Protons have a positive charge (+) and electron have a negative charge (-). Opposite charge attract each other.
Electricity is moving electrons
Ø The electrons near the nucleus are held tight to the atom.
Ø Sometimes, the ones farthest away are not.
Ø We can push some of the electrons out of their shells.
Ø We also can move them moving electrons are called ELECTRICITY.
Electrons move from place to place.
۞ Electricity has been around forever.
۞ Lighting is electricity electrons moving from one cloud to another or jumping to the ground.
۞ A bunch of electrons jumped to you from another object. It called static electricity.
۞ Electrons aren’t moving through a wire, they are jumping from one object to another.
Electricity travels through wires.
| The spinning turbines make electricity.
| It flows into power lines.
| The electrons flow through the power lines to our houses.
| They flows through the wires in our houses and back to the power plant.
| Then, they start their journey again.
We get our electricity through wires
o The power plant makes electricity.
o The electricity transmission line held up by power towers.
o The transmission line carry large amount of electricity to electric poles in cities and towns.
o Distribution lines carry small amount of electricity from the electric poles to houses and business.
Electricity travels in loops
r Electricity travels in closed loops, or circuits.
r It must have complete path from the power plant through the wire and back.
r If the circuit is open, the electricity can’t flow.
r When we flip on a light switch, we closed a circuit.
r The electricity flow through the light and back into the wire.
r When we flip the switch off, we open the circuit.
r No electricity flows to the light.
r It flows straight through the switch.
Electricity does work
§ When we turn a light switch on, electricity flows through a tiny wire in the bulb.
§ The wire gets very hot.
§ It makes the gas in the bulb glow.
§ When a lightbulb burns out, it means the tiny wire has broken.
§ The path trough the bulb is gone.
§ When we turn on the tv, electricity flows through wire inside the set, making pictures and sound.
§ Sometimes, electricity runs motors-in washers or mixers.
Talasemia adalah penyakit genetik sel darah merah. Pesakit talasemia tidak dapat menghasilkan sel darah merah yang berkualiti dalam kuantiti yang mencukupi. Ini adalah kerana gen yang mengawal penghasilan hemoglobin telah terjejas. Hemoglobin adalah satu protein di dalam sel darah merah yang berfungsi untuk membawa oksigen ke seluruh tisu-tisu di dalam badan kita.
Talasemia adalah penyakit genetik atau keturunan, di mana anak mendapat gen talasemia daripada ibubapa. Ianya bukan penyakit berjangkit , iaitu tidak boleh ditransmisi melalui darah, udara dan air , atau melalui sentuhan fizikal dan seksual dengan pesakit talasemia. Lelaki dan perempuan mempunyai peluang yang sama untuk mendapat penyakit ini.
Satu daripada dua puluh penduduk Malaysia adalah pembawa gen talasemia. Di Malaysia, terdapat 600,000 hingga 1 juta pembawa talasemia, dan lebih kurang 2500 pesakit talasemia major. Kebanyakan pesakit adalah daripada keturunan Melayu, Cina dan kaum Bumiputra Sabah.
Terdapat dua jenis talasemia yang utama iaitu
- Pembawa gen talasemia( Talasemia minor)
- Pesakit talasemia (Talasemia major)
Manakala pesakit talasemia tajor akan menunjukkan tanda-tanda sejak dari umur 3- 18 bulan. Tanda dan gejala termasuk:
- Keadaan pucat yang semakin ketara, sentiasa lemah dan resah
- Anemia yang serius boleh menyebabkan kesukaran bernafas
- Perut buncit disebabkan pembengkakan hati dan limpa
- Tumbesaran terbantut
- Semakin anak membesar terdapat perubahan pembentukan di bahagian muka
Bagaimana gen Talasemia diturunkan kepada anak?Anak mewarisi gen talasemia daripada ibubapa. Contohnya, jika kedua-dua ibubapa adalah pembawa gen talasemia, berkemungkinan setiap kehamilan melahirkan bayi berpenyakit talasemia adalah tinggi
Rawatan untuk pesakit Talasemia
Pesakit talasemia tajor perlu mendapatkan rawatan transfusi darah sebanyak 1-2 kali sebulan dalam seumur hidup. Ini akan mengembalikan paras hemoglobin ke tahap yang lebih baik dan tisu-tisu di dalam badan akan mendapat bekalan oksigen yang mencukupi.
Akan tetapi, transfusi darah yang berpanjangan akan menyebabkan pengumpulan zat besi yang berlebihan di dalam organ-organ penting di dalam badan.Fungsi organ-organ seperti jantung, hati dan kelejar endokrin akan terjejas dan ini akan mendatangkan kesan buruk terhadap pesakit.
Oleh itu, rawatan penyingkiran zat besi adalah amat penting bagi pesakit talasemia major. Ia boleh diberikan secara suntikan atau mulut. Pilihan lain adalah pembedahan membuang limpa yang dijalankan terhadap pesakit talasemia major bergantung pada situasi tertentu.
Rawatan pemindahan sum-sum tulang daripada adik-beradik yang sesuai juga ada dijalankan,. sementara rawatan gen masih di dalam kajian.
Jika tidak dirawat, pesakit talasemia akan mendapat tanda-tanda yang disebut di atas dan ia boleh membawa maut disebabkan oleh kesan anemia yang serius, kegagalan jantung dan jangkitan kuman.
Jika hanya mendapat rawatan transfusi darah tanpa rawatan penyingkiran zat besi, zat besi yang terkumpul di dalam organ-organ akan mengganggu fungsi organ tersebut.
Bolehkah Talasemia dicegah?Talasemia hanya boleh dicegah dengan mengenal pasti pembawa gen melalui ujian saringan dan mengelak perkahwinan sesama pembawa-pembawa gen talasemia.
Adakah kumpulan sokongan untuk pesakit Talasemia?Sila hubungi hospital berhampiran, klinik atau Persatuan Talasemia Malaysia.
Talasemia (bahasa Inggeris: Thalassaemia) adalah penyakit kecacatan darah. Talasemia merupakan keadaan yang diwarisi, iaitu diwariskan dari keluarga kepada anak. Kecacatan gen menyebabkan hemoglobin dalam sel darah merah menjadi tidak normal. Mereka yang mempunyai penyakit Talasemia tidak dapat menghasilkan hemoglobin yang mencukupi dalam darah mereka. Hemoglobin adalah bahagian sel darah merah yang mengangkut oksigen daripada paru-paru keseluruh tubuh. Semua tisu tubuh manusia memerlukan oksigen. Akibat kekurangan sel darah merah yang normal akan menyebabkan pesakit kelihatan pucat kerana paras hemoglobin (Hb) yang rendah (anemia).
Sel darah merah bertugas membekalkan oksigen kepada tisu dalam badan manusia. Kekurangan sel darah merah bagi membekalkan oksijen akang mengakibatkan pesakit talasemia berasa lesu, tidak bermaya, dan mungkin sesak nafas sekiranya paras hemoglobin semakin menurun.
Mereka yang mengidap Thalassaemia tidak mampu membekalkan seluruh sel tubuh mereka denga bekalan oksigen yang mencukupi akibat kekurangan hemoglobin dalam sel darah merah. Tisu yang ketiadaan oksigen gagal berfungsi dengan baik. Dengan itu tubuh mereka menjadi lemah, gagal berkembang dengan baik, dan mereka boleh menjadi sakit teruk.
Pesakit Talasemia biasanya mempunyai paras hemoglobin yang rendah iaitu kurang daripada 10g/dl. Mereka yang mengidap Talasemia mempunyai kelebihan melawan penyakit Malaria.
The appendix is a narrow, muscular, worm-shaped tube. One end is attached to the part of large intestine. The other end is closed and its position in the body can vary from person to person. Usually, an average adult appendix is about 4 inches (10 cm) long, but can range in length from less than inch up to 8 inches. Its diameter is usually about 1/3 inch (7-8mm). The function of appendix is unknown. Indigestible food moves from the small intestine into the appendix, and is the forced out again, as the appendix contracts its muscular walls, into the large intestine. Normally, the appendix sits in the lower right abdomen. One thing we do know is “we can live without it, without apparent consequences”. The biologist Charles Darwin thought that the appendix may be a by-product of evolution, it something that early humans needed to help digest plants. However, research has suggested that the appendix may provide a home to 'friendly bacteria' that aid digestion and help fight infection. It is thought that the most common causes of appendicitis are infection and obstruction (when something gets trapped in the appendix). However, in many cases there is no obvious cause. During appendicitis, the appendix becomes filled with bacteria that produce pus, causing the appendix to swell. Usually, appendicitis is rare under age 2 and most common between ages 10 and 30.
The symptoms of appendicitis normally begin with a pain in your abdomen. The pain usually develops quickly and then becomes more severe over the course of several hours. The location of the pain can vary, particularly in the early stages of the condition, but it tends to 'settle' in the lower right side of your abdomen. Applying pressure to the area usually makes the pain worse, as does coughing and walking. If you have appendicitis, you may also have other symptoms, including, first is nausea. Nausea is common sign and the patient on side may vomit once or twice. The muscles of the right side of the abdomen become tense and rigid. Lying on one side and drawing up both the knees towards the chest could bring some comfort. The pain increases on the right side on pressing the left side of the abdomen. Next is loss of appetite. Its mean by you feel like don’t want to eat more like before or the lack of desire to eat. Third is constipation. Constipation is that a person has three or fewer bowel movements in a week. The stool can be hard and dry. Sometimes it is painful to pass. At one time or another, almost everyone gets constipated. In most cases, it lasts a short time and is not serious. Next is a high temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or more. It makes us got fever easily. Lastly is diarrhea. Diarrhea means that you have loose, watery stools more than three times in one day. You may also have cramps, bloating, nausea and an urgent need to have a bowel movement
The precise cause of appendicitis is not entirely clear. However, the two most likely causes are thought to be are an infection and an obstruction. Infection is possibly a stomach infection that has travelled to the site of the appendix and obstruction is for example, a hard piece of stool (faeces) gets trapped in your appendix and the bacteria in the stool then infects the appendix. Once bacteria enter your appendix, they rapidly multiply, causing the appendix to swell and become filled with pus. If appendicitis is left untreated, your appendix will burst and the bacteria that are released may infect other parts of your body. For example, they could infect the lining of your abdomen that can cause peritonitis and other is can cause blood poisoning.
Appendicitis treatment is a medical emergency that requires prompt surgery to remove the appendix. Left untreated, an inflamed appendix will eventually burst, or perforate, spilling infection into the abdominal cavity. This can lead to peritonitis, a serious infection of the abdominal cavity's lining (the peritoneum) that can be fatal unless it is treated quickly with strong antibiotics and surgery to remove the pus. Sometimes a pus-filled abscess forms outside the inflamed appendix. Scar tissue then "walls off" the appendix from the rest of the abdomen, preventing infection from spreading. An abscessed appendix is a less urgent situation, but unfortunately, it cannot always be identified without surgery. For this reason, all cases of appendicitis are treated as emergencies. Another treatment is antibiotics is while the diagnosis is in question, antibiotics treat any potential infection that might be causing the symptoms. In general, antibiotics alone cannot effectively treat appendicitis.
Everyone can save from get appendicitis if we can do something that can prevent, if you notice severe pain in your stomach frequently then consult your doctor immediately. This pain can sometimes be a reason for inflammation in the appendix. If it is recognized at an early stage then you can take proper medical aid on time and cure it. A well balanced diet is very essential to prevent appendicitis. Do not eat spicy food to avoid cooking food with unnecessary spices. This will increase the chances of appendicitis. Consume food that is rich in fiber. Fiber rich food helps in proper digestion and reduces the risk of appendicitis. Fresh green leafy vegetables and fresh fruits contain enough amounts of fibers that must be including in diet regularly. If you want to include additional fibers in your diet then you can begin your day with a high fiber cereal. They are very rich source of fiber. Whole grain foods such as oatmeal, whole wheat bread, barley should be included in your diet. Legumes such as black beans, kidney beans and split peas should be soaked in water and consume at least one bowl of them regularly. Fresh fruit and vegetable juices are also very helpful in preventing appendicitis. Carrot juice, cucumber juice and beetroot juice are found to be very helpful in preventing appendicitis. Drinking tea that is blended with few fenugreek seeds will also help you in preventing appendicitis. Drink this tea regularly during the initial symptoms of appendicitis so that you need not depend upon medicines to cure it. You can conduct diagnostic tests if you notice any signs or symptoms. Diagnostic tests for appendicitis are blood test, urine test, X-ray, use of ultrasound, computed tomography, CTC, and the necessary method. There is no sure method that will give you complete prevention against appendicitis. The tips that are given above are helpful to reduce the risk to some extent.
For conclusion we must follow the instruction to get a healthier life and avoid getting unnecessary disease. Appendicitis is a famous disease and can attack anyone that takes an unhealthy food or inappropriate activity. See your doctor as soon as possible when you feel pain in your stomach.